The British economy is at a critical juncture. Its future success depends on overcoming two major, interrelated problems – long-term structural weaknesses in investment, productivity and trade, and the need to decarbonise. In this context, the north of England faces a particular challenge. The North’s economy is more carbon intensive than the English average, and its many carbon-intensive industries face a challenging transition. It is also suffering from a lack of investment relative to other regions, particularly London. However, the North has a large economic potential, more of which could be unlocked from directed investment, and is already realising many of the opportunities of decarbonisation, with a vibrant low-carbon goods and services sector and nearly half of England’s renewables generation.