Against the odds


This report from UK think tank the Institute of Development Studies looks at action for empowerment and accountability in challenging contexts.

How and under what conditions does citizen-led social and political action contribute to empowerment and accountability? What are the strategies used, and with what outcomes, especially in settings which are democratically weak, politically fragile and affected by legacies of violence and conflict? The Action for Empowerment and Accountability (A4EA) research programme has explored these questions in Mozambique, Myanmar, Nigeria and Pakistan over five years between 2016-2021.

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