Creating restraint in cyberspace

This report from UK think tank RUSI looks at forward cyber operations and theories of restraint.

As offensive cyber activities continue to trend in a dangerous direction, some states are turning to defensive strategies that involve cyber operations beyond the boundaries of their own systems. A commonly cited aim of this approach is to induce restraint in adversaries, but how to accomplish this goal remains unclear. To better understand the utility and risks in applying forward cyber operations to generate restraint in competitors, this paper examines how they might be applied under foundational theories of restraint: deterrence by punishment and compellence; deterrence by denial; entanglement; normative constraints and tacit cooperation.

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